# varying

FRP through value streams and monadic splines.

https://github.com/schell/varying

Version on this page: | 0.5.0.3 |

LTS Haskell 19.7: | 0.8.1.0 |

Stackage Nightly 2022-05-14: | 0.8.1.0 |

Latest on Hackage: | 0.8.1.0 |

**Schell Scivally**

**schell.scivally@synapsegroup.com**

`varying-0.5.0.3@sha256:b8df1b4f62f0c519763efb2f13ee6308b7df4faeb1545bcadd63a1ba03a70617,4385`

#### Module documentation for 0.5.0.3

*(full list with versions)*:

# varying

This library provides automaton based value streams useful for both functional
reactive programming (FRP) and locally stateful programming (LSP). It is
influenced by the netwire and
auto packages. Unlike netwire the
concepts of inhibition and time are explicit (through `Control.Varying.Event`

and `Control.Varying.Time`

). The library aims at being minimal and well
documented with a small API.

## Getting started

```
module Main where
import Control.Varying
import Control.Applicative
import Text.Printf
import Data.Functor.Identity
-- | A simple 2d point type.
data Point = Point { px :: Float
, py :: Float
} deriving (Show, Eq)
-- An exponential tween back and forth from 0 to 100 over 2 seconds that
-- loops forever. This spline takes float values of delta time as input,
-- outputs the current x value at every step and would result in () if it
-- terminated.
tweenx :: (Applicative m, Monad m) => SplineT Float Float m ()
tweenx = do
-- Tween from 0 to 100 over 1 second
x <- tween easeOutExpo 0 100 1
-- Chain another tween back to the starting position
_ <- tween easeOutExpo x 0 1
-- Loop forever
tweenx
-- A quadratic tween back and forth from 0 to 100 over 2 seconds that never
-- ends.
tweeny :: (Applicative m, Monad m) => SplineT Float Float m ()
tweeny = do
y <- tween easeOutQuad 0 100 1
_ <- tween easeOutQuad y 0 1
tweeny
-- Our time signal that provides delta time samples.
time :: VarT IO a Float
time = deltaUTC
-- | Our Point value that varies over time continuously in x and y.
backAndForth :: VarT IO a Point
backAndForth =
-- Turn our splines into continuous output streams. We must provide
-- a starting value since splines are not guaranteed to be defined at
-- their edges.
let x = outputStream 0 tweenx
y = outputStream 0 tweeny
in
-- Construct a varying Point that takes time as an input.
(Point <$> x <*> y)
-- Stream in a time signal using the 'plug left' combinator.
-- We could similarly use the 'plug right' (~>) function
-- and put the time signal before the construction above. This is needed
-- because the tween streams take time as an input.
<~ time
main :: IO ()
main = do
putStrLn "An example of value streams using the varying library."
putStrLn "Enter a newline to continue, quit with ctrl+c"
_ <- getLine
loop backAndForth
where loop :: VarT IO () Point -> IO ()
loop v = do (point, vNext) <- runVarT v ()
printf "\nPoint %03.1f %03.1f" (px point) (py point)
loop vNext
```

## Caveats

With tweening, if your input time delta is greater than the duration of the
first spline, that spline immediately concludes and returns its result value -
the stream then continues on to the next spline in the sequence, *applying the
same unmodified input* as the previous spline. This is because splines
immediately conclude and trigger the next spline, and there is no machinery for
altering input after the splines conclusion. What’s worse is if you have a
cyclical (infinite) sequence of spline tweens, each with a duration less than
the given delta - the stream will never produce an output. The input will
conclude every spline prematurely and the stream will loop infinitely, hanging
the current thread.

### Here is an example

```
let dv :: Monad m => SplineT Float (V2 Float) m ()
dv = do tween_ easeInExpo 10 (V2 100 10) 0.25
tween_ easeInExpo (V2 100 10) 100 0.25
tween_ easeInExpo 100 (V2 10 100) 0.25
tween_ easeInExpo (V2 10 100) 10 0.25
dv
v :: Monad m => VarT m Float (V2 Float)
v = (deltaTime ~> outputStream dv 0)
(vec2, v1) <- runVarT v 0.5 -- hangs indefinitely
```

Surprisingly enough, this is expected behavior (inputs that conclude the current spline should be passed downstream immediately), but the behavior isn’t easily spotted. If you encounter your program hanging check to see that your cyclical splines aren’t receiving an input that is bigger than they expect.

### A very easy fix

There is a very simple fix for this scenario - produce exactly one duplicate output just before recursing:

```
let dv :: Monad m => SplineT Float (V2 Float) m ()
dv = do tween_ easeInExpo 10 (V2 100 10) 0.25
tween_ easeInExpo (V2 100 10) 100 0.25
tween_ easeInExpo 100 (V2 10 100) 0.25
vec <- tween easeInExpo (V2 10 100) 10 0.25
step vec -- <----------------------------\
dv -- |
v :: Monad m => VarT m Float (V2 Float) -- |
v = (deltaTime ~> outputStream dv 0) -- |
(vec, v1) <- runVarT v 0.5 -- will produce 'vec' ---/
```

The downside is that this is not mathematically accurate - the delta will be completely consumed and the stream will output the last position even though the delta was not necessarily an amount great enough to warrant that output.

## Changes

# change log

0.1.5.0 - added Control.Varying.Spline

0.2.0.0 - reordered spline type variables for MonadTrans

0.3.0.0 - updated the type of mapOutput to a more friendly, usable signature bug fixes

0.3.1.0 - added stepMany, eitherE

0.4.0.0 - Var and Spline are now parameterized with Identity, removed mix, changed the behavior of race, added untilEvent variants, added tests

0.5.0.0 - changed stepMany to remove Monoid requirement, added raceMany, added anyE, more tests and SplineT obeys Applicative and Monad laws

0.5.0.1 - removed time as dependency

0.5.0.2 - separated tweening time and value, added runSplineE, builds on all GHC since 7.6