BSD-3-Clause licensed by Andrew Lelechenko

Module documentation for 0.3.0.0

This version can be pinned in stack with:poly-0.3.0.0@sha256:f67898cb81e1d21471e6c594a2a7d6edecf8498b058df80a43673980ccd2ef54,1764

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Univariate polynomials, backed by Vector.

> (X + 1) + (X - 1) :: VPoly Integer
2 * X + 0

> (X + 1) * (X - 1) :: UPoly Int
1 * X^2 + 0 * X + (-1)

Vectors

Poly v a is polymorphic over a container v, implementing Vector interface, and coefficients of type a. Usually v is either a boxed vector from Data.Vector or an unboxed vector from Data.Vector.Unboxed. Use unboxed vectors whenever possible, e. g., when coefficients are Int or Double.

There are handy type synonyms:

type VPoly a = Poly Data.Vector.Vector         a
type UPoly a = Poly Data.Vector.Unboxed.Vector a

Construction

The simplest way to construct a polynomial is using the pattern X:

> X^2 - 3*X + 2 :: UPoly Int
1 * X^2 + (-3) * X + 2

(Unfortunately, a type is often ambiguous and must be given explicitly.)

While being convenient to read and write in REPL, X is relatively slow. The fastest approach is to use toPoly, providing it with a vector of coefficients (head is the constant term):

> toPoly (Data.Vector.Unboxed.fromList [2, -3, 1 :: Int])
1 * X^2 + (-3) * X + 2

There is a shortcut to construct a monomial:

> monomial 2 3 :: UPoly Int
3 * X^2 + 0 * X + 0

Operations

Most operations are provided by means of instances, like Eq and Num. For example,

> (X^2 + 1) * (X^2 - 1) :: UPoly Int
1 * X^4 + 0 * X^3 + 0 * X^2 + 0 * X + (-1)

One can also find convenient to scale by monomial (cf. monomial above):

> scale 2 3 (X^2 + 1) :: UPoly Int
3 * X^4 + 0 * X^3 + 3 * X^2 + 0 * X + 0

While Poly cannot be made an instance of Integral (because there is no meaningful toInteger), it is an instance of GcdDomain and Euclidean from semirings package. These type classes cover main functionality of Integral, providing division with remainder and gcd / lcm:

> Data.Euclidean.gcd (X^2 + 7 * X + 6) (X^2 - 5 * X - 6) :: Data.Poly.UPoly Int
1 * X + 1

> Data.Euclidean.quotRem (X^3 + 2) (X^2 - 1 :: Data.Poly.UPoly Double)
(1.0 * X + 0.0,1.0 * X + 2.0)

Miscellaneous utilities include eval for evaluation at a given value of indeterminate, and reciprocals deriv / integral:

> eval (X^2 + 1 :: UPoly Int) 3
10

> eval (X^2 + 1 :: VPoly (UPoly Int)) (X + 1)
1 * X^2 + 2 * X + 2

> deriv (X^3 + 3 * X) :: UPoly Double
3.0 * X^2 + 0.0 * X + 3.0

> integral (3 * X^2 + 3) :: UPoly Double
1.0 * X^3 + 0.0 * X^2 + 3.0 * X + 0.0

Deconstruction

Use unPoly to deconstruct a polynomial to a vector of coefficients (head is the constant term):

> unPoly (X^2 - 3 * X + 2 :: UPoly Int)
[2,-3,1]

Further, leading is a shortcut to to obtain the leading term of a non-zero polynomial, expressed as a power and a coefficient:

> leading (X^2 - 3 * X + 2 :: UPoly Int)
Just (2,1)

Flavours

The same API is exposed in four flavours:

  • Data.Poly provides dense polynomials with Num-based interface. This is a default choice for most users.

  • Data.Poly.Semiring provides dense polynomials with Semiring-based interface.

  • Data.Poly.Sparse provides sparse polynomials with Num-based interface. Besides that, you may find it easier to use in REPL because of a more readable Show instance, skipping zero coefficients.

  • Data.Poly.Sparse.Semiring provides sparse polynomials with Semiring-based interface.

Changes

0.3.0.0

  • Implement sparse polynomials.
  • Add GcdDomain and Euclidean instances.
  • Add functions leading, monomial, scale.
  • Remove function constant.

0.2.0.0

  • Fix a bug in Num.(-).
  • Add functions constant, eval, deriv, integral.
  • Add a handy pattern synonym X.

0.1.0.0

  • Initial release.
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