BSD-3-Clause licensed by Remi Turk
Maintained by remi.turk@gmail.com
This version can be pinned in stack with:libffi-0.2.1@sha256:72b41cefb799f3d3509c6cec8ecbf5023cf442c53a601aaaacee5872c722908b,2745
Depends on 2 packages(full list with versions):

libffi

Hackage Hackage Dependencies Haskell Programming Language BSD3 License Linux build

A binding to libffi, allowing C functions of types only known at runtime to be called from Haskell.

Notes on GHC’s bundling of libffi

This library makes a somewhat unusual choice: by default, it does not explicitly declare a dependency against the libffi C library. This is because most binary distributions of GHC—that is, GHCs configured without the --with-system-libffi option—bundle their own copies of libffi. One of these copies is statically linked, and another of these copies is dynamically linked. Moreover, whenever GHC compiles an executable, it will always pass the necessary flags to link against its static copy of libffi, as the GHC runtime system depends on it.

When GHC bundles its own copies of libffi, if you were to declare, say, an extra-libraries: ffi dependency, then it would not behave in the way that you would expect. This is because:

  1. The linker flags to link against GHC’s static copy of libffi always come first in the final linking step when compiling an executable. As a result, declaring an extra-libraries: ffi dependency won’t make much of a difference, since GHC will always statically link against its own copy of libffi anyway due to the order of linker flags.

  2. Moreover, declaring an extra-libraries: ffi dependency can have the unfortunate side effect of declaring an unused dynamic dependency against libffi. Even worse is the fact that the version of dynamically linked libffi that comes with your operating system may differ from the version of dynamically linked libffi that GHC bundles. When the version numbers differ, this can lead to the compiled executable failing at runtime with mysterious errors such as:

    error while loading shared libraries: libffi.so.7: cannot open shared object file: No such file or directory
    

    For more information on this point, see GHC#15397.

Observation (2) means that when GHC is configured with --with-system-libffi, it is inherently fragile to use extra-libraries: ffi. This is an unfortunate situation, but there is not much that one can do about this short of fixing GHC#15397 upstream. A workaround would be to configure GHC with --with-system-libffi, but practically speaking, the vast majority of GHC binary distributions do not configure this way. This includes all versions of GHC that ghcup distributes, so unless we want to exclude most GHC users, we need some kind of workaround for this issue.

Our workaround is to rely on observation (1). That is, because GHC always passes flags to the linker to link against its own static copy of libffi, we can always assume that GHC will handle the libffi dependency for us. As a result, the default behavior for this library is to enable the +ghc-bundled-libffi flag, which means that the library will not declare an external dependency on libffi at all. This is rather unusual, but then again, GHC bundling its own copies of libffi is also unusual. (To our knowledge, this is the only C library that GHC bundles in this fashion.)

We have tested out +ghc-bundled-libffi on Windows, macOS, and Linux, and it works as expected. If you encounter any linking oddities with +ghc-bundled-libffi, please file an issue.

It is worth re-emphasizing that +ghc-bundled-libffi will only work if you are using a binary distribution of GHC that was not configured with the --with-system-libffi option. If you are using such a GHC, then you will need to use -ghc-bundle-libffi (note the minus sign) to disable the flag and link against your operating system’s copy of libffi. Unfortunately, cabal does not provide a way to detect whether GHC was configured with --with-system-libffi or not, so the burden is on users to enable or disable ghc-bundle-libffi as appropriate.

Changes

0.2.1 [2022.09.24]

  • Add sizeAndAlignmentOfCType to Foreign.LibFFI.Base, which can be used to retrieve the size and alignment of a CType.

0.2 [2022.08.11]

  • The libffi library now uses bracket internally and should now be exception-safe.

  • There is a now a ghc-bundled-libffi cabal flag that makes this library statically link against GHC’s bundled copy of libffi rather than attempt to link against the system libffi. On the vast majority of GHCs, this is the most reasonable option, as linking against the system libffi is inherently fragile. As a result, +ghc-bundled-libffi is now the defalut setting. See the README for more discussion on this point.

  • The definition of Arg has changed:

    -newtype Arg = Arg { unArg :: IO (Ptr CType, Ptr CValue, IO ()) }
    +newtype Arg = Arg { unArg :: forall a. (Ptr CType -> Ptr CValue -> IO a) -> IO a }
    
  • The definition of RetType has changed:

    -data RetType a = RetType (Ptr CType) ((Ptr CValue -> IO ()) -> IO a)
    +newtype RetType a = RetType { unRetType :: (Ptr CType -> Ptr CValue -> IO ()) -> IO a }
    

0.1 [2009.03.17]

  • Initial release.