A Testing Framework for Haskell


Version on this page:2.5.5
LTS Haskell 22.29:2.11.9
Stackage Nightly 2024-07-13:2.11.9
Latest on Hackage:2.11.9

See all snapshots hspec appears in

MIT licensed
Maintained by Simon Hengel
This version can be pinned in stack with:hspec-2.5.5@sha256:1bcbd4e9f1a67ca851283cfa842bc5e577e6d3ae54ad959684467fb9d848cf3f,2389

Hspec is a testing framework for Haskell. It is inspired by the Ruby library RSpec. Some of Hspec's distinctive features are:

  • a friendly DSL for defining tests

  • integration with QuickCheck, SmallCheck, and HUnit

  • parallel test execution

  • automatic discovery of test files

The Hspec Manual is at http://hspec.github.io/.


Changes in 2.5.5

  • Use module[line:column] instead of module:line:column as default label for describe/it (fixes #366)

Changes in 2.5.4

  • Show how to rerun individual spec items on test failures (see #205)

Changes in 2.5.3

  • Treat character escapes like \NUL as single tokens on --diff (see #351)
  • Allow a / at the beginning and at the end of an absolute path that is passed to --match or --skip

Changes in 2.5.2

Changes in 2.5.1

  • Disable tests for Test.Hspec.Core.Timer (see #352)

Changes in 2.5.0

  • Add sequential (see #311)
  • Add support for --diff when shouldBe is uesd with QuickCheck-properties
  • Add source locations when shouldBe is uesd with QuickCheck properties
  • Print QuickCheck labels on success (see #297)
  • Retain output of verbose, label, collect, classify, etc. for QuickCheck properties (see #257)
  • Extract source location from error / undefined (see #316)
  • Parse source locations from pattern match failures
  • Include source column when formatting source locations
  • Colorize whitespaces with background color instead of foreground color with --diff
  • Run Test.Hspec.Core.Formatters.exampleProgress in FormatM instead of IO
  • Make sure that progress output is always cleared (fixes #301)
  • Add location information to pending (not used by any formatter yet)
  • Include duration for each spec item in new formatter API (see #315) (not yet exposed)
  • Removed deprecated module Test.Hspec.HUnit, use Test.Hspec.Contrib.HUnit instead
  • Deprecate --out
  • Remove BestEffort source locations

Changes in 2.4.8

  • compatibility with GHC 8.4.1-alpha3

Changes in 2.4.7

  • compatibility with QuickCheck-2.11.3 and up (note that QuickCheck versions 2.11 to 2.11.2 are not fully supported)

Changes in 2.4.6

  • compatibility with the upcoming version of base

Changes in 2.4.5

  • hspec-discover: Sort specs using natural sort order

Changes in 2.4.4

  • Require quickcheck-io >= 0.2.0

Changes in 2.4.3

  • Read command-line options from environment variable HSPEC_OPTIONS

Changes in 2.4.2

  • Use --diff by default
  • Add --failure-report (see #266)

Changes in 2.4.1

  • Compatibility with HUnit < 1.3

Changes in 2.4.0

  • Read command-line options from config files ~/.hspec and .hspec
  • Add support for --diff
  • Add xit, xspecify, xdescribe and xcontext (see #252)
  • Add --rerun-all-on-success
  • Report exceptions in beforeAll operations only once
  • Add indentation when actual/expected contain newlines (see #263)
  • More graceful shutdown on ctrl-c (see #270)
  • Run around-hook for Bool and Result (see #252)
  • Include CHANGES.markdown in package tarball

Internal changes:

  • Rename Fail constructor of Result-type to Failure
  • Add FailureReason type
  • Add Test.Hspec.Core.Spec.safeEvaluateExample

Changes in 2.3.2

  • Compatibility with HUnit 1.5

Changes in 2.3.1

  • Fix build for HUnit < 1.4

Changes in 2.3.0

  • Proper support for GHC 8 call stacks

Changes in 2.2.4

  • Compatibility with QuickCheck-2.9

Changes in 2.2.3

  • Make sure that cabal haddock works for hspec-discover
  • Forward compatibility for HUnit 1.4
  • Fix tests for GHC 8.0.1-rc1

Changes in 2.2.2

  • Fix compilation for GHC 8.0.1-rc1

Changes in 2.2.1

  • Make sure that Vim’s default errorformat recognizes exact locations
  • GHCJS compatibility

Changes in 2.2.0

  • Add source locations to test Result

Changes in 2.1.10

  • GHC 7.0.* compatibility

Changes in 2.1.9

  • Make use of GHC 7.10.2 source locations
  • Add --jobs

Changes in 2.1.8

  • Depend on `hspec-expectations-0.7.0”

Changes in 2.1.7

  • Add beforeAll_

Changes in 2.1.6

  • If there were no previous failures, run all spec items on --rerun

Changes in 2.1.5

  • Compatibility with QuickCheck-2.8

Changes in 2.1.4

  • Make hspec-discover ignore modules with invalid module names, this fixes issues with flycheck’s temporary files

Changes in 2.1.3

  • Format source locations like gcc does

Changes in 2.1.2

  • Re-export before_ from Test.Hspec

Changes in 2.1.1

  • Add before_
  • Add command-line option --skip

Changes in 2.1.0

  • Generalize after_, afterAll_ and around_

Changes in 2.0.2

  • Indent error messages for failed examples (fixes #186)
  • Export defaultParams from Test.Hspec.Core.Example
  • Bring back Test.Hspec.HUnit and deprecate it to provide a smother upgrade path

Changes in 2.0.1

  • Add missing extra source files to for hspec-discover

Changes in 2.0.0

  • Split package into hspec, hspec-core and hspec-discover
  • Allow hooks (before, around, etc.) to pass arguments to spec items
  • Do not print - in front of spec items with specdoc formatter
  • Move Test.Hspec.HUnit to hspec-contrib

Changes in 1.12.4

  • Add specGroup and specItem to Test.Hspec.Core
  • Deprecate Test.Hspec.Core.it and Test.Hspec.Core.describe

Changes in 1.12.3

  • Make hspec-discover work with -XNoImplicitPrelude

Changes in 1.12.2

  • Include IOErrorType when printing uncaught IOExceptions (see #204)

Changes in 1.12.1

  • Add --module-name option to hspec-discover (see #168)

Changes in 1.12.0

  • Add optional source location to spec items
  • Move item requirement text from SpecItem constructor to Item data type
  • Remove BuildSpecs constructor from SpecTree, having runIO this is not really needed
  • Add mapSpecTree to Test.Hspec.Core
  • Add afterAll (see #188)
  • Do not return Result from hspecWith and accept command-line options (the old behavior is still available as hspecWithResult)
  • Rename configHandle to configOutputFile
  • Omit empty describe groups from report
  • Do not pass position to Formatter.exampleGroupStarted (we can not support this with the upcomming cleanup actions #188)
  • Do not print empty lines before/after spec groups
  • Deprecate Test.Hspec.Formatters.newParagraph

Changes in 1.11.4

  • Make test suite independent from QuickCheck seed (see #187)

Changes in 1.11.3

  • Depend on hspec-expectations-0.6.1

Changes in 1.11.2

  • Add beforeAll

Changes in 1.11.1

  • Add specify as an alias for it

Changes in 1.11.0

  • Add BuildSpecs constructor to internal SpecTree data structure. This allows you to do IO while constructing the spec tree.
  • Add runIO

Changes in 1.10.0

  • Do not use exception type to distinguish between synchronous/asynchronous exceptions (thanks to Michael Snoyman)
  • Remove Example instance for Test.HUnit.Test (#101), use Test.Hspec.HUnit.fromHUnitTest instead.
  • Do not reexport property from Test.Hspec.QuickCheck
  • Move ProgressCallback out of Params
  • Add show instance for Params
  • Move requirement text from Item to SpecItem constructor
  • Remove deprecated modules and functions

Changes in 1.9.5

  • Make sure that ctrl-c works properly with GHC 7.8.* and QuickCheck-2.6

Changes in 1.9.4

  • Compatibility with transformers-

Changes in 1.9.3

  • Make internal Tree data structure more strict (#169)

Changes in 1.9.2

  • Print type of exceptions that are raised from QuickCheck properties (#94)

Changes in 1.9.1

  • Bring back compatibility with older versions of QuickCheck (#166)

Changes in 1.9.0

  • Depend on QuickCheck 2.7

Changes in 1.8.3

  • Do not use color if TERM=dumb (see #158)

Changes in 1.8.2

  • hspec-discover now accepts --no-main which results in a top-level spec being generated instead of a test driver (thanks @DanielG)
  • Make sure that after is run on failing tests (see #159)

Changes in 1.8.1

  • Add shouldMatchList

Changes in 1.8.0

  • Run before/after/around for each single check of a QuickCheck property
  • Add Test.Hspec.Core.mapSpecItem
  • Add modifyMaxSuccess, modifyMaxDiscardRatio and modifyMaxSize to Test.Hspec.QuickCheck
  • Don’t fail if callback is not called in around
  • hspec-discover: Remove --nested option
  • hspec-discover: Ignore Spec.hs/Spec.lhs

Changes in 1.7.2

  • Add after and around

Changes in 1.7.1

  • Add shouldContain (thanks to Alfredo Di Napoli)
  • When printing progress, skip total if it is 0
  • Do not colorize the description/requirement in failure list

Changes in 1.7.0

  • Add --depth for use with hspec-smallcheck

Change in 1.6.2

  • Add before
  • Add --qc-max-discard and --qc-max-size

Changes in 1.6.1

  • Allow to specify the output file with --out

Changes in 1.6.0

  • Add support for parallelization
  • Change license to MIT
  • Add MonadIO instance for FormatM
  • Add support for custom formatters to hspec-discover
  • Add hspecResult
  • Rename --re-run to --rerun + add documentation (#95)
  • Remove configVerbose
  • Use same --qc-max-success on --rerun (#125)
  • Add command-line option --no-color, --color does not accept arguments anymore (#130)

Changes in 1.5.4

  • Make sure that QuickCheck is never chatty
  • Make sure progress for QuickCheck examples is shown

Changes in 1.5.3

  • Print “Randomized with seed …” only once

Changes in 1.5.2

  • Add --seed, it can be used to specify the seed for QuickCheck properties
  • Reuse previous seed on --re-run

Changes in 1.5.1

  • Depend on quickcheck-io

Changes in 1.5.0

  • Allow to use expectations as QuickCheck properties (#80)
  • Do not suppress output to stdout
  • Change type of pending to Expectation, add pendingWith (#121)
  • Add the example function, it fixes the type of an Expectation (#86)
  • Rename --fast-fail to --fail-fast (for consistency with RSpec)
  • Do not clutter Cabal test suite logs with QuickCheck output (#112)
  • Skip redundant output from QuickCheck failure messages (#102)

Changes in 1.4.5

  • hspec-discover now discovers .lhs files, too

Changes in 1.4.4

  • Visually distinguish error message from requirements in the summary (#100)
  • Export formatException from Test.Hspec.Formatters
  • Add --fast-fail (#82)
  • Print a summary on UserInterrupt/ctrl-c (#107)

Changes in 1.4.3

  • Add --dry-run (#111)

Changes in 1.4.2

  • Properly handle ctrl-c while running QuickCheck properties (#93)
  • Default to --color=always when --color is used without argument (#106)
  • treat --qc-max-success as an alias for --maximum-generated-tests

Changes in 1.4.1

  • Used CPU time is now only included in the test summary if run with --print-cpu-time.

Changes in 1.4.0

  • We now have a manual at http://hspec.github.io/. The sources are in doc/. It’s still work in progress. Contributions are very welcome!
  • The Haddock documentation now indicates the stability of each exposed module. Test.Hspec is now considered stable.
  • hspec now supports command-line options
    • --color can be used to enable/disable colored output
    • --format can be used to pick a specific formatter
    • --html can be used to produce an HTML report
    • --maximum-generated-tests can be used to specify QuickCheck’s maxSuccess
    • --match only runs spec items that match a given string
    • --re-run only runs spec items that previously failed. This is undocumented, experimental and only works within GHCi (use :reload / :main)!
  • Runner functions exported from Test.Hspec.Runner new expect a monadic spec.
  • fromHUnitTest has been added. It can be used to run existing HUnit test suites with Hspec.
  • The Example instance for HUnit Tests has been deprecated. fromHUnitTest can be used instead. The primary motivation is, that fromHUnitTest gives more detailed reporting for nested HUnit test suites.
  • Test.Hspec.Monadic has been deprecated, all functionality is available through one of Test.Hspec, Test.Hspec.Core or Test.Hspec.Runner.
  • More of Hspec’s internals are now exposed from Test.Hspec.Core
  • All runner functions for the core spec type (aka as non-monadic spec) have been deprecated, use e.g. Test.Hspec.hspec . fromSpecList instead. The motivation is to provide an API that does not expose colliding names.
  • Some other stuff from Test.Hspec.Core that collides with other parts of the API has been deprecated. Compatible alternatives are given in each deprecation message.
  • The default formatter now produces less whitespace (#73) + other minor improvements
  • The formatter API has been revamped.
  • The exception type is now printed if an example fails due to an exception (#50)
  • The number of pending examples is now printed after each test run (#85)
  • --verbose has been added (#87)

Changes in 1.3.0

  • Test.Hspec now re-exports the monadic API. If you still use the non-monadic API, you can use Test.Hspec.Core as a drop-in replacement.

  • hspec-expectations, a set of combinators that allow to express expectations about the outcome of code examples, is now included with Hspec. Have a look at the [README of hspec-expectations] (https://github.com/sol/hspec-expectations#readme) for a short introduction.

  • hspec-discover, a mechanism for automatic spec discovery, is now an official part of Hspec. Have a look at [hspec-discover’s README] (https://github.com/hspec/hspec/tree/master/hspec-discover#readme) for a short introduction.

Changes in 1.2.0

  • hspec has been removed, and hspecX has been renamed to hspec (see #71)

  • hHspec now returns a summary of the test run.

  • The time reporting after a test run is not colored anymore.

Changes in 1.1.3

  • Test.Hspec warns now about future changes: It will re-export Test.Hspec.Monadic in the future. If you still use the non-monadic API, you can either use Test.Hspec.Core as a drop-in replacement, or migrate your code to the monadic API.

    The monadic API is more stable and easier to use. Now is a good time to switch!

  • Test.Hspec.Core is now a proper superset of Test.Hspec

Changes in 1.1.2

  • All descriptions of nested examples are now included in summary for failing examples

  • context is now an alias for describe

Changes in 1.1.1

  • Specs from Test.Hspec.Monadic has been renamed to Spec. For backward compatibility Specs is still kept as an alias.

Changes in 1.1.0

The reason for pending examples is now optional

With this change, both of the following code snippets work.

it "some behavior" $
  pending  -- no reason given
it "some other behavior" $
  pending "some reason"

Hspec does not rely on ExistentialQuantification anymore

The type used to represent specs is now abstract

This should give more useful error messages when adapting old specs that use the non-monadic API for hspec-1.0/hspec-1.1.

Several internal types and functions have been deprecated

Those are internal functions, and they will be removed/hidden with the next release. If you use any of those, update your code. If you really need them, open a ticket and describe your use case.

Changes in 1.0.0

Hspec now re-uses QuickCheck’s property function

Test.Hspec.QuickCheck.property is now simply a re-exports of Test.QuickCheck.property. This has the advantage that you do not get a name collision if you import both, Test.Hspec.QuickCheck and Test.QuickCheck.

Better support for nested specs

NOTE: This is a breaking change to the non-monadic API. The monadic API is not affected.

In some situations parent descriptions for nested specs were not included in the generated report. Solving this required a change to the data structure that is used to represent specs (it was not a proper tree, now it is).

Updating specs that use the non-monadic API

The runner functions (hspec, hspecB and hspecX) now take a list of descriptions.

The following works with hspec-0.9, but not with hspec-1.0.

main = hspecX $
  describe "reverse" [
    it "reverses a list" $
      reverse [1, 2, 3] == [3, 2, 1],

    it "gives the original list, if applied twice" $ property $
      \xs -> reverse (reverse xs) == (xs :: [Int])

For hspec-1.0, you need to wrap it into a list.

main = hspecX [
    describe "reverse" [
      it "reverses a list" $
        reverse [1, 2, 3] == [3, 2, 1],

      it "gives the original list, if applied twice" $ property $
        \xs -> reverse (reverse xs) == (xs :: [Int])

Specs consisting of several desribes, combined with descriptions, continue to work unchanged. But descriptions is now a noop, and it will be removed in a future release. So it is a good idea to drop it.

The following works with both hspec-0.9 and hspec-1.0.

main = hspecX $ descriptions [  -- descriptions is redundant
    describe "Foo" [
      it "has some behavior" True
  , describe "Bar" [
      it "has some behavior" True

But the following is recommended instead.

main = hspecX [
    describe "Foo" [
      it "has some behavior" True
  , describe "Bar" [
      it "has some behavior" True

A new monadic API for custom Formatters

For all the details, have a look at the [docs] (http://hackage.haskell.org/packages/archive/hspec/latest/doc/html/Test-Hspec-Formatters.html).

The total time required to run a spec is now included in the summary

In addition to the used CPU time, the total time required to run a spec is now include in the summary. This is useful for specs that do non-CPU-intensive stuff, or fork subprocesses.