BSD-3-Clause licensed by Edward A. Kmett
Maintained by Edward A. Kmett
This version can be pinned in stack with:bound-2.0.7@sha256:ca9f8248d42b0873469f5726e2eb892914ca7165dc5dc8fbe039abc8ca712116,4284


Hackage Build Status


This library provides convenient combinators for working with “locally-nameless” terms. These can be useful when writing a type checker, evaluator, parser, or pretty printer for terms that contain binders like forall or lambda, as they ease the task of avoiding variable capture and testing for alpha-equivalence.

See the documentation on hackage for more information, but here is an example:

{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFunctor #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveFoldable #-}
{-# LANGUAGE DeriveTraversable #-}
{-# LANGUAGE TemplateHaskell #-}

import Bound
import Control.Applicative
import Control.Monad
import Data.Functor.Classes
import Data.Foldable
import Data.Traversable
import Data.Eq.Deriving (deriveEq1)      -- these two are from the
import Text.Show.Deriving (deriveShow1)  -- deriving-compat package

infixl 9 :@
data Exp a = V a | Exp a :@ Exp a | Lam (Scope () Exp a)
  deriving (Eq,Show,Functor,Foldable,Traversable)

instance Applicative Exp where pure = V; (<*>) = ap

instance Monad Exp where
  return = V
  V a      >>= f = f a
  (x :@ y) >>= f = (x >>= f) :@ (y >>= f)
  Lam e    >>= f = Lam (e >>>= f)

lam :: Eq a => a -> Exp a -> Exp a
lam v b = Lam (abstract1 v b)

whnf :: Exp a -> Exp a
whnf (f :@ a) = case whnf f of
  Lam b -> whnf (instantiate1 a b)
  f'    -> f' :@ a
whnf e = e

deriveEq1 ''Exp
deriveShow1 ''Exp

main :: IO ()
main = do
  let term = lam 'x' (V 'x') :@ V 'y'
  print term         -- Lam (Scope (V (B ()))) :@ V 'y'
  print $ whnf term  -- V 'y'

There are longer examples in the examples/ folder.

Contact Information

Contributions and bug reports are welcome!

Please feel free to contact me through github or on the #haskell IRC channel on

-Edward Kmett


2.0.7 [2023.08.06]

  • Support building with template-haskell-2.21.* (GHC 9.8).

2.0.6 [2023.01.18]

  • Allow the examples to build with base-4.18.* (GHC 9.6).

2.0.5 [2022.05.07]

  • Allow building with transformers-0.6.*.

2.0.4 [2021.11.07]

  • Allow building with template-haskell-2.18 (GHC 9.2).
  • The Bound.TH module no longer requires the TemplateHaskell extension (only TemplateHaskellQuotes) when building with GHC 9.0 or later.
  • Drop support for pre-8.0 versions of GHC.

2.0.3 [2021.02.05]

  • Allow the examples to build with vector-0.12.2 or later.
  • The build-type has been changed from Custom to Simple. To achieve this, the doctests test suite has been removed in favor of using cabal-docspec to run the doctests.

2.0.2 [2020.10.01]

  • Allow building with GHC 9.0.


  • Add abstractEither and instantiateEither to Bound.Scope, and add abstractEitherName and instantiateEitherName to Bound.Scope.Name
  • Add Generic(1) instances for Name and Scope
  • Support doctest-0.12


  • GHC 8.0 and 8.2 support
  • Converted from prelude-extras to transformers + transformers-compat for the Eq1, Ord1, Show1, and Read1 functionality.
  • makeBound supports Functor components
  • Add MFunctor instance for Scope
  • Add NFData instances for Name, Scope, and Var
  • Revamp Setup.hs to use cabal-doctest. This makes it build with Cabal-1.25, and makes the doctests work with cabal new-build and sandboxes.


  • Added an -f-template-haskell option to allow disabling template-haskell support. This is an unsupported configuration but may be useful for expert users in sandbox configurations.
  • Support cereal 0.5


  • Compiles warning-free on GHC 7.10


  • Widened version bound on bifunctors.
  • Widened version bound on profunctors.


  • Widened version bound on transformers.


  • Added bitransverseScope.


  • Removed unneccesary constraint on hoistScope.


  • Added a monomorphic hoistScope for Bound.Scope.Simple


  • Added instances for Bound for all of the mtl monads.
  • Added Data and Typeable support to both versions of Scope
  • Added the missing Applictive instance to Bound.Scope.Simple
  • Moved hoistScope, bitraverseScope, transverseScope, and instantiateVars here from the ermine compiler.

  • Updated to work with bifunctors 4.0


  • Updated to work with comonad 4.0 and profunctors 4.0


  • Added the missing instance for Applicative (Scope b f)


  • SafeHaskell support


  • Added Serial, Binary and Serialize instances for Scope.


  • Added Hashable, Hashable1 and Hashable2 instances where appropriate for Name, Var and Scope.


  • More aggressive inlining
  • Added unvar, _B, _F to Bound.Var.
  • Added _Name to Bound.Name.


  • Support for prelude-extras 0.3


  • Removed my personal inter-package dependency upper bounds
  • Updated doctest suite to use exact versions.


  • Created a doctest-based test suite
  • Added many examples
  • 100% haddock coverage
  • Added the Name Comonad, to help retain names for bound variables.
  • Bumped dependencies