hadolint

Dockerfile Linter JavaScript API https://github.com/hadolint/hadolint

Latest on Hackage:1.11.1

This package is not currently in any snapshots. If you're interested in using it, we recommend adding it to Stackage Nightly. Doing so will make builds more reliable, and allow stackage.org to host generated Haddocks.

GPL-3 licensed by Lukas Martinelli
Maintained by me@lukasmartinelli.ch

Linux/OSX Build Status Windows Build status GPL-3 licensed GitHub release Github downloads

Haskell Dockerfile Linter

A smarter Dockerfile linter that helps you build best practice Docker images. The linter is parsing the Dockerfile into an AST and performs rules on top of the AST. It is standing on the shoulders of ShellCheck to lint the Bash code inside RUN instructions.

How to use

You can run hadolint locally to lint your Dockerfile.

hadolint <Dockerfile>
hadolint --ignore DL3003 --ignore DL3006 <Dockerfile> # exclude specific rules
hadolint --trusted-registry my-company.com:500 <Dockerfile> # Warn when using untrusted FROM images

Docker comes to the rescue to provide an easy way how to run hadolint on most platforms. Just pipe your Dockerfile to docker run:

docker run --rm -i hadolint/hadolint < Dockerfile

Install

You can download prebuilt binaries for OSX, Windows and Linux from the latest release page. However, if it doesn’t work for you, please fall back to Docker, brew or source installation.

If you are on OSX you can use brew to install hadolint.

brew install hadolint

As shown before, hadolint is available as a Docker container:

docker pull hadolint/hadolint

If you need a Docker container with shell access, use the Debian variant of the Docker image:

docker pull hadolint/hadolint:latest-debian

You can also build hadolint locally. You need Haskell and the stack build tool to build the binary.

git clone https://github.com/hadolint/hadolint
cd hadolint
stack install

Configure

hadolint supports specifying the ignored rules using a configuration file. The configuration file should be in yaml format. This is one valid configuration file as an example:

ignored:
  - DL3000
  - SC1010

Additionally, hadolint can warn you when images from untrusted repositories are being used in Dockerfiles, you can append the trustedRegistries keys to the configuration file as shown below:

ignored:
  - DL3000
  - SC1010

trustedRegistries:
  - docker.io
  - my-company.com:5000

Configuration files can be used globally or per project. By default, hadolint will look for a configuration file in the current directory with the name .hadolint.yaml

The global configuration file should be placed in the folder specified by XDG_CONFIG_HOME, with the name hadolint.yaml. In summary, the following locations are valid for the configuration file, in order or preference:

  • $PWD/.hadolint.yaml
  • $XDG_CONFIG_HOME/hadolint.yaml
  • ~/.config/hadolint.yaml

In windows, the %LOCALAPPDATA% environment variable is used instead of XDG_CONFIG_HOME

Additionally, you can pass a custom configuration file in the command line with the --config option

hadolint --config /path/to/config.yaml Dockerfile

Inline ignores

It is also possible to ignore rules by using a special comment directly above the Dockerfile instruction you want to make an exception for. Ignore rule comments look like # hadolint ignore=DL3001,SC1081. For example:

# hadolint ignore=DL3006
FROM ubuntu

# hadolint ignore=DL3003,SC1035
RUN cd /tmp && echo "hello!"

Inline ignores will only work if place directly above the instruction.

Integrations

To get most of hadolint it is useful to integrate it as a check to your CI or to your editor to lint your Dockerfile as you write it. See our Integration docs.

Rules

An incomplete list of implemented rules. Click on the error code to get more detailed information.

  • Rules with the prefix DL originate from hadolint. Take a look at Rules.hs to find the implementation of the rules.

  • Rules with the SC prefix originate from ShellCheck (Only the most common rules are listed, there are dozens more)

Please create an issue if you have an idea for a good rule.

Rule Description
DL3000 Use absolute WORKDIR.
DL3001 For some bash commands it makes no sense running them in a Docker container like ssh, vim, shutdown, service, ps, free, top, kill, mount, ifconfig.
DL3002 Last user should not be root.
DL3003 Use WORKDIR to switch to a directory.
DL3004 Do not use sudo as it leads to unpredictable behavior. Use a tool like gosu to enforce root.
DL3005 Do not use apt-get upgrade or dist-upgrade.
DL3007 Using latest is prone to errors if the image will ever update. Pin the version explicitly to a release tag.
DL3006 Always tag the version of an image explicitly.
DL3008 Pin versions in apt-get install.
DL3009 Delete the apt-get lists after installing something.
DL3010 Use ADD for extracting archives into an image.
DL3011 Valid UNIX ports range from 0 to 65535.
DL3012 Provide an email address or URL as maintainer.
DL3013 Pin versions in pip.
DL3014 Use the -y switch.
DL3015 Avoid additional packages by specifying –no-install-recommends.
DL3016 Pin versions in npm.
DL3017 Do not use apk upgrade.
DL3018 Pin versions in apk add. Instead of apk add <package> use apk add <package>=<version>.
DL3019 Use the --no-cache switch to avoid the need to use --update and remove /var/cache/apk/* when done installing packages.
DL3020 Use COPY instead of ADD for files and folders.
DL3021 COPY with more than 2 arguments requires the last argument to end with /
DL3022 COPY --from should reference a previously defined FROM alias
DL3023 COPY --from cannot reference its own FROM alias
DL3024 FROM aliases (stage names) must be unique
DL3025 Use arguments JSON notation for CMD and ENTRYPOINT arguments
DL3026 Use only an allowed registry in the FROM image
DL4000 MAINTAINER is deprecated.
DL4001 Either use Wget or Curl but not both.
DL4003 Multiple CMD instructions found.
DL4004 Multiple ENTRYPOINT instructions found.
DL4005 Use SHELL to change the default shell.
DL4006 Set the SHELL option -o pipefail before RUN with a pipe in it
SC1000 $ is not used specially and should therefore be escaped.
SC1001 This \c will be a regular 'c' in this context.
SC1007 Remove space after = if trying to assign a value (or for empty string, use var='' ...).
SC1010 Use semicolon or linefeed before done (or quote to make it literal).
SC1018 This is a unicode non-breaking space. Delete it and retype as space.
SC1035 You need a space here
SC1045 It’s not foo &; bar, just foo & bar.
SC1065 Trying to declare parameters? Don’t. Use () and refer to params as $1, $2 etc.
SC1066 Don’t use $ on the left side of assignments.
SC1068 Don’t put spaces around the = in assignments.
SC1077 For command expansion, the tick should slant left (` vs ´).
SC1078 Did you forget to close this double-quoted string?
SC1079 This is actually an end quote, but due to next char, it looks suspect.
SC1081 Scripts are case sensitive. Use if, not If.
SC1083 This {/} is literal. Check expression (missing ;/\n?) or quote it.
SC1086 Don’t use $ on the iterator name in for loops.
SC1087 Braces are required when expanding arrays, as in ${array[idx]}.
SC1095 You need a space or linefeed between the function name and body.
SC1097 Unexpected ==. For assignment, use =. For comparison, use [/[[.
SC1098 Quote/escape special characters when using eval, e.g. eval "a=(b)".
SC1099 You need a space before the #.
SC2002 Useless cat. Consider cmd < file | .. or cmd file | .. instead.
SC2015 Note that A && B || C is not if-then-else. C may run when A is true.
SC2026 This word is outside of quotes. Did you intend to ’nest ’”‘single quotes’”’ instead’?
SC2028 echo won’t expand escape sequences. Consider printf.
SC2035 Use ./*glob* or -- *glob* so names with dashes won’t become options.
SC2046 Quote this to prevent word splitting
SC2086 Double quote to prevent globbing and word splitting.
SC2140 Word is in the form "A"B"C" (B indicated). Did you mean "ABC" or "A\"B\"C"?
SC2154 var is referenced but not assigned.
SC2155 Declare and assign separately to avoid masking return values.
SC2164 Use cd … || exit in case cd fails.

Develop

If you are an experienced Haskeller we would be really thankful if you would tear our code apart in a review.

Setup

  1. Clone repository

    git clone --recursive git@github.com:hadolint/hadolint.git
    
  2. Install the dependencies

    stack install
    

REPL

The easiest way to try out the parser is using the REPL.

# start the repl
stack repl
# parse instruction and look at AST representation
parseString "FROM debian:jessie"

Tests

Run unit tests.

stack test

Run integration tests.

./integration_test.sh

AST

Dockerfile syntax is fully described in the Dockerfile reference. Just take a look at Syntax.hs in the language-docker project to see the AST definition.

Alternatives

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